Pour rendre les diagrammes ombrothermiques comparables entre eux: .. Nous avons utilisé la méthode et les conventions de H. Gaussen et F. Bagnouls. Bagnouls &. Gaussen (,). Climograph of 10 meteorological stations Diagramme ombrothermique. Oujda. Tanger. Kenitra. Safi. Laayoune. Dakhla. Diagramme ombrothermique de Bagnouls et Gaussen Quotient pluviothermique d’Emberger Echantillonnage et choix des stations. Etude Du.
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Construction d’un diagramme ombrothermique
Le texte des articles originaux de recherche devrait normalement comporter quatre parties: En revanche, toutes les ponctuations sont suivies d un espace. London, Academic Press, p. Chapitre d ouvrage May R. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Public: Ghent, 18 November The editorial committee thanks the colleagues who have participated in this volume for their advices, corrections and opinions. Revival of special issues in The second number of ecologia mediterranea in gassen see the publication of a thematic set Ecological Restoration of Mediterranean Ecosystems: Le figuier de Barbarie Opuntia ficus indica L.
Abstract Algerian steppes rangeland biological reclamation has to be based on the choice of plant species with ecological parameters requirement, such as drought tolerance and ability to grow in soils with low fertility and quality.
Prickly pear Opuntia ficus indica L.
The aim of this study is to prospect the impact of prickly pear plantations 0, 5, and 20 years old on soil characteristics and plant biodiversity. Algerian steppes, desertification, land reclamation, soil properties, plant cover, diversity. Cover rates, bgnouls, specific richness and plant diversity were observed and evaluated.
Results of analysis of variance showed statistical significant effects of plantation age on organic matter, water content, active calcareous and soil cover rates.
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These results suggest that Opuntia ficus indica plantations in semi arid zones could contribute to improve soil conditions and plant species abundance. The results gussen that Opuntia ficus indica plantation, beside of the small amount of investment required for its establishment and high economical and ecological advantages, contributes on a long term significantly to improve soil conditions and spontaneous plant species abundance in semi arid zones.
An important part of it reached a high level of erosion and degradation. Programs of its biological reclamation and rehabilitation must take into consideration the choice of plant species. Species those are able to grow in harsh conditions, such as low soil fertility, a small depth and a low capacity of water retention. They must also be drought tolerant.
One of this species used in Algeria is Opuntia ficus indica L. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of 0, 5, and 20 years old Opuntia ficus indica plantations on some soil physicochemical properties i.
Plantations of prickly pear were gauszen in a semi arid zone of eastern Bagnols, from which soil samples in the space between interspace shrubs were collected and analyzed. C est le cas du figuier de Barbarie Opuntia ficus indica L. Le Houerou et Mendez et al. Parmi ces plantations, figurent celles de figuier de Barbarie. Figure 1 Location of the study area. Figure 3a Young plantation of Opuntia gausaen indica. Figure 3b Old Plantation of Opuntia ficus indica.
Figure 3d Establishment of herbaceous vegetation around prickly pear Photo, Neffar Elle varie entre 0 et 1.
Mais, si on prenait le nombre Table 3 Effect of the age of Opuntia plantation on soil parameters. Values show the average of 6 repetitions. Figure 5 Effect of the age of plantation on abundance. Figure 4 Effect of the age of plantation on recovery.
Figure 6 Effect of the age of gajssen on species richness.
Norme P Aidoud A. Paris, INRA, p. Mill and O,brothermique nummularia L. Animal Feed Sciences and Technology, Paris, Masson, p. Journal of Environmental Management, Forest Ecology and Management, Basic problems and techniques. Haleb, Diagrakme, Direction des publications universitaires. Alger, Office des publications universitaires, p. Journal of Arid Environment, Journal of Arid Environments, doi: Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Cheikh Al Bassatneh M. Journal of Arid Environments, Journal of Arid Environment, doi: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Journal of Food Engineering, European Journal Agronomy, Small Ruminant Research, BoxNicosia Tel: Abstract Increasingly there is a move from site based to landscape based conservation delivery.
This is a result of a paradigm shift in ecology associated with the rapid changes of the 20th century and growing concern about their impact on landscape quality. Relevant policy measures at the European level soon followed these changes calling for the management of all landscapes.
Landscape character is a distinct, recognisable and consistent pattern of elements in the landscape that makes a landscape different to another. Landscape Character Assessment LCA is a technique used to classify, describe and understand the evolution and physical and cultural characteristics of a landscape.
LCA uses a range of data sources to identify and describe areas of common character and can operate at a range of scales i.
The emerging landscape classifications are based on the use of GIS and statistics in diagrqmme to map landscapes, evaluate their character and apply the framework for decision making and planning. The aim of this paper is to review the use of LCA in the Mediterranean context. The paper provides an overview of LCA, describes the existing landscape classifications in the Mediterranean and evaluates the applicability of diagram,e method for landscape identification, pressure identification, monitoring change and nature conservation.
The review demonstrates that landscape mapping and assessment is still limited in the Mediterranean. Where undertaken the existing typologies have not been produced in a consistent way across the Basin, with little emphasis given on the cultural imprints, while there are Keywords: Classification, GIS, mapping, nature conservation, planning, typology.
This partly reflects the fact that landscapes are still low in the political agenda as demonstrated by the very small number of European countries in the Mediterranean that have ratified the European Landscape Convention. Introduction The theory of landscape ecology founded and described in the seminal work by Forman set the scene for a paradigm shift in ecology from site based to landscape based processes.
Landscape as defined by Forman and Godron is a mosaic of interacting ecosystems. Although the landscape may appear principally physical it is experienced by people who live, travel or see it from afar. Often the distinction is made between natural and cultural landscapes. In reality this distinction is artificial since in Europe, and particularly in the Mediterranean, there are very few areas free of human intervention. In nature conservation, in particular, the shift away from a designation led approach to a landscape approach, seeks to encourage a more comprehensive vision of land management and rural decision-making.
Ommbrothermique conservation and management are now considered effective only when carried out at Landscape scale approaches are fundamental to the understanding of past and present cultural evolution Aalen and now considered to be an appropriate spatial framework for the analysis of sustainability Morse et al.
Landscape character is a distinct, recognisable ombrotuermique consistent pattern of elements in the landscape that makes a landscape different to another, not better or worse Swanwick Landscape Character Assessment LCA is a set of techniques and procedures used to classify, describe and understand the evolution and physical and cultural characteristics of landscape.
LCA has a long history in Europe with north-west European countries leading the way on methodological aspects but also on implementation through policy and legislation e. In recent years, o,brothermique progress has also been made in south Europe with regard to the description and mapping of landscape types Pinto-Correia et al. The Mediterranean Landscape Charter known as the Sevilla Charter, was the first document to cover specific issues about the management and protection of Mediterranean landscapes and to stress the need for protection of their natural and cultural heritage.
According to the European Landscape Convention the landscape contributes to the formation of local cultures and that it is a basic component of the European natural and cultural heritage, contributing to human well-being and consolidation of the European identity.
This statement is also true for the Mediterranean. The natural background of diverse climate, geology and topography has been transformed by human use of the land to create the rich mosaic of cultural landscapes that characterise so agussen of the basin Vogiatzakis et al.
However, many of these landscapes are typical throughout the Mediterranean to the extent that inhabitants and visitors alike can resonate with these distinct landscapes.
gausden The management of the Mediterranean landscapes is a multidisciplinary, and crossnational problem that spans a wide range of spatial scales.
This complexity is probably the reason why landscape-specific methodologies and concepts have not yet been fully embraced in the Mediterranean, and despite the fact that one of the most prominent authorities and advocate of these methodologies Zev Naveh originates from the area see Naveh ; Currently there is inadequacy in our level of knowledge of the landscape typology, i.
The second Chapter, section 6C, of the European Landscape Convention is dedicated to the identification and assessment of landscapes Diagrmme of Europe To that end landscape character assessment as described herein is a necessary starting point for management and a prerequisite for the evaluation and risk assessment of bagnoulls or changes in the landscape.
Landscape means different things to different people and this is also reflected in Landscape Character Assessment LCA. The bagnnouls denominator though, i. Therefore, LCA has evolved into a more complex and holistic approach over the years. Area classification is the precursor to landscape classification of which there are two types of analysis depending on the scale.
These include detailed analyses of restricted areas based on selected variables or global approaches based on one or two types of data such as the distribution of ecosystem types or geomorphology.